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INVEST: INternational VErapamil Trandolapril STudy


INVEST was an international, randomized, open label, blinded end point study clinical trial of 22,576 hypertensive CAD patients ages 50 and older with CHD and essential hypertension. Patients were randomized to either a calcium antagonist led treatment strategy (verapamil SR 240/360 mg) or a beta blocker led treatment strategy (atenolol 50/100 mg) and also received trandolapril and/or HCTZ as needed to achieve BP control. Mortality and morbidity outcomes were measured at 24 months and no difference was found for the primary outcome comparing the treatment strategies. DNA samples are available for 5,979 of the patients.

Primary outcome: first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke

Secondary outcomes: all-cause death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, new-onset diabetes

INVEST Publications